What is the meaning of the Parable of the Prodigal Son?

Question: "What is the meaning of the Parable of the Prodigal Son?"

The Parable of the Prodigal Son is found in Luke chapter 15, verses 11-32. The main character in the parable, the forgiving father, whose character remains constant throughout the story, is a picture of God. In telling the story Jesus identifies Himself with God in His loving attitude to the lost. The younger son symbolizes the lost (the tax collectors and sinners of that day, Luke 15:1), and the elder brother represents the self-righteous (the Pharisees and teachers of the law of that day, Luke 15:2). The major theme of this parable seems not to be so much the conversion of the sinner, as in the previous two parables of Luke 15, but rather the restoration of a believer into fellowship with the Father. The main difference being that the owner went out to look for what was lost in the first two (Luke 15:1-10), whereas in this story the father waited and watched eagerly for his son's return. We see a progression between the three parables from the relationship of one in a hundred (Luke 15:1-7), to one in ten (Luke 15:8-10), to one in one (Luke 15:11-32); demonstrating God’s love for each individual and His personal attentiveness towards all humanity. We see in this story the graciousness of the father overshadowing the sinfulness of the son, as it is the memory of the father’s goodness that brings the prodigal son to repentance (Romans 2:4).

We will begin unfolding the meaning of this parable at verse 12 in which the younger son asked his father for his share of his estate; which would have been half of what his older brother would receive; in other words 1/3 for the younger, 2/3 for the older (Deuteronomy 21:17). Though it was perfectly within his rights to ask, it was not a loving thing to do as it implied that he wished his father dead. Instead of rebuking his son the father patiently granted him his request. This is a picture of God letting a sinner go his own way (Deuteronomy 30:19). We all possess this foolish ambition to be independent, which is at the root of the sinner persisting in their sin (Genesis 3:6, Romans 1:28). A sinful state is a departure and distance from God (Romans 1:21). A sinful state is also a state of constant discontent. Luke 12:15 says, “Watch out! Be on your guard against all kinds of greed; a man’s life does not consist in the abundance of his possessions.” This son learned the hard way that covetousness leads to a life of dissatisfaction and disappointment. He also learned that the most valuable things in life are the things you cannot buy, nor replace.

In verse 13 it says he traveled to a distant country. It is evident from his previous actions that he had already made that journey in his heart, and the physical departure was a display of his willful disobedience to all the goodness His father had offered (Proverbs 27:19, Matthew 6:21, 12:34). In the process, he squandered all his father had worked so hard for, on selfish, shallow fulfillment, losing everything. His financial disaster was followed by a natural disaster in the form of a famine which he failed to plan for (Genesis 41:33-36). At this point he sold himself into physical slavery to a Gentile and found himself feeding pigs, a detestable position and job to the Jewish people (Leviticus 11:7; Deuteronomy 14:8; Isaiah 65:4; 66:17). Needless to say he must have been incredibly desperate at that point to willingly enter into such a loathsome position. And what an irony that his choices led him to a position in which he had no choice but to work, for a stranger at that, the very things he refused to do for his father. To top it off, he apparently was paid so little that he longed to eat the pig’s food. Just when he must have thought life could not get any worse, he couldn’t even find mercy among the people. Apparently, once his wealth was gone, so were his friends. The text clearly says, “no one gave him anything” (vs. 16). Even these unclean animals seemed to be better off than he was at this point. This is a picture of the state of the lost sinner or a rebellious Christian who has returned to a life of slavery to sin (2 Peter 2:19-21). It is a picture of what sin really does in a person’s life, when they reject the Father’s will (Hebrews 12:1, Acts 8:23). “Sin always promises more than it gives, takes you further than you wanted to go, and leaves you worse off than you were before.” Sin promises freedom but brings slavery (John 6:23).

The son began to reflect on his condition and realized that even his father's servants had it better than him. His painful circumstances helped him to see his father in a new light and brought him hope (Psalm 147:11, Isaiah 40:30-31, Romans 8:24-25, 1 Timothy 4:10). This is reflective of the sinner when he/she discovers the destitute condition of their life because of sin. It is a realization that apart from God there is no hope (Ephesians 2:12, 2 Timothy 2:25-26). This is when a repentant sinner “comes to his senses” and longs to return to the state of fellowship with God which was lost when Adam sinned (Genesis 3:8). The son devised a plan of action. Though at a quick glance it may seem that he may not be truly repentant, but rather motivated by his hunger, a more thorough study of the text gives new insights. He is willing to give up his rights as his father’s son and take on the position of his servant. We can only speculate at this point, but possibly to repay what he had lost (Luke 19:8, Leviticus 6:4-5). Regardless of the motivation it demonstrates a true humility and true repentance, not based on what he said but was willing to do and eventually acted upon (Acts 26:20). He realized he had no right to claim a blessing upon return to his father’s household, nor did he have anything to offer, except a life of service, in repentance of his previous actions. With that he was prepared to fall at his father’s feet and hope for forgiveness and mercy. This is exactly what conversion is all about, ending a life of slavery to sin, through confession to the Father and faith in Jesus Christ, and becoming a slave to righteousness; offering ones body as a living sacrifice (1 John 1:9, Romans 6:6-18, 12:1).

Jesus portrays the father as waiting for his son, perhaps daily searching the distant road hoping for his appearance, in that he noticed him while he was still a long way off. The father’s compassion assumes some knowledge of the son’s pitiful state, possibly from reports sent home. During that time it was not the custom of men to run, yet the father ran to greet his son (vs.20). Why would he break conventionalism for this wayward child who had sinned against him? The obvious answer is because he loved him and was eager to show him that love and restore the relationship. When the father reached his son not only did he throw his arms around him but he also greeted him with a kiss of love (1 Peter 5:14). He was so filled with joy at his son’s return that he didn’t even let him finish his confession. Nor did he question or lecture him; instead he unconditionally forgave him and accepted him back into fellowship. The father running to his son, greeting him with a kiss and ordering the celebration to begin is a picture of how our Heavenly Father feels towards sinners who repent. God greatly loves us, patiently waits for us to repent so he can show us His great mercy, because he does not want any to perish nor escape as though by the fire (Ephesians 2:1-10, 2 Peter 3:9, 1 Corinthians 3:15).

This prodigal son was satisfied to return home as a slave, but to his surprise and delight was restored back into the full privilege of being his father’s son. He had been transformed from a state of destitution to complete restoration. That is what God's grace does for a penitent sinner (Psalm 40:2, 103:4). Not only are we forgiven but we receive a spirit of sonship as His children, heirs of God and co-heirs with Christ, of his incomparable riches (Romans 8:16-17, Ephesians 1:18-19). The father then ordered the servants to bring the best robe; no doubt one of his own (a sign of dignity and honor, proof of his acceptance back into the family), a ring for the son's hand (a sign of authority and sonship) and sandals for his feet (a sign of not being a servant, as servants did not wear shoes, or for that matter rings or expensive clothing) (vs.22). All these things represent what we receive in Christ upon salvation: clothed in the robe of the Redeemer's righteousness (Isaiah 61:10), made partakers of the Spirit of adoption (Ephesians 1:5), feet fitted with the readiness that come from the gospel of peace prepared to walk in the ways of holiness (Ephesians 6:15). A fattened calf was prepared, and a party was held (notice that blood was shed = atonement for sin ~ Hebrews 9:22). Fatted calves in those times were saved for special occasions such as the Day of Atonement (Leviticus 23:26-32). This was not just any party; it was a rare and complete celebration. Had the boy been dealt with according to the Law there would have been a funeral, not a celebration. “The Lord does not treat us as our sins deserve or repay us according to our iniquities. For as high as the heavens are above the earth, so great is his love for those who fear him; as far as the east is from the west, so far has he removed our transgressions from us. As a father has compassion on his children, so the Lord has compassion on those who fear him.” (Psalm 103:10-13). Instead of condemnation, there is rejoicing for a son who had been dead but now is alive, who once was lost but now is found (Romans 8:1; John 5:24). Note the parallel between “dead” and “alive” and “lost” and “found”—terms that also apply to one’s state before and after conversion to Christ (Ephesians 2:1-5). This is a picture of what occurs in heaven over one repentant sinner (Luke 15: 7, 10).

Now to the final and tragic character in the Parable of the Prodigal Son, the oldest son, who, once again, illustrates the Pharisees and the Scribes. Outwardly they lived blameless lives, but inwardly their attitudes were abominable (Matthew 23:25-28). This was true of the older son who worked hard, obeyed his father, and brought no disgrace to his family or townspeople. It is obvious by his words and actions, upon his brothers return, that he is not showing love for his father or brother. One of the duties of the eldest son would have included reconciliation between the father and his son. He would have been the host at the feast to celebrate his brother’s return. Yet he remained in the field instead of in the house where he should have been. This act alone would have brought public disgrace upon the father. Still the father, with great patience, went out to his angry and hurting son. He did not rebuke him as his actions and disrespectful address of his father warranted (vs.29, “Look” instead of addressing him as “Father” or “My Lord”), nor did his compassion cease as he listened to his complaints and criticisms. The boy pleaded to his father's righteousness by proudly proclaiming his own self-righteousness in comparison to his brother’s sinfulness (Matthew 7:3-5). By saying “this son of yours,” the older brother avoids acknowledging that the prodigal is his own brother (vs. 30). Just like the Pharisees, the older brother was defining sin by outward actions, not inward attitudes (Luke 18:9-14). In essence the older brother was saying that he was the one worthy of the celebration and his father had been ungrateful for all his work. Now the one who had squandered his wealth was getting what he deserved. The father tenderly addresses his oldest as “my son” (vs. 31) and corrects the error in his thinking by addressing the prodigal son as “this brother of yours” (vs. 32). The father’s response, “We had to celebrate” suggests that the elder brother should have joined in the celebration as there seems to be a sense of urgency in not postponing the celebration of the brother’s return.

The older brother’s focus was on himself and as a result there was no joy in his brother’s arrival home. He was too self-consumed with issues of justice and equity that he failed to see the value in the fact that his brother had repented and returned. He failed to realize that “anyone who claims to be in the light but hates his brother is still in the darkness. Whoever loves his brother lives in the light, and there I nothing in him to make him stumble. But whoever hates his brother is in the darkness; he does not know where he is going, because the darkness has blinded him” (1 John 2:9-11). He allowed anger to take root in his heart to the point that he was unable to forgive or show compassion towards his brother, and for that matter the perceived sin of his father against him (Genesis 4:5-8). He preferred to nurse his anger rather than enjoy fellowship with his father, brother and the community. He chose suffering and isolation over restoration and reconciliation (Matthew 5:24, 6:14-15). He saw his brother’s return as a threat to his own inheritance. After all, why should he have to share his portion with a brother who has squandered his? And why hadn’t his father rejoiced in his presence through his faithful years of service?

The wise father seeks to bring restoration by pointing out that all he has is and has always been available for the asking to his obedient son, as it was his portion of the inheritance since the time of the allotment. He never utilized the blessings at his disposal (Galatians 5:22, 2 Peter 1:5-8). Just like the Pharisees had a religion of good works. They hoped to earn blessings from God and in their obedience merit everlasting life (Romans 9:31-33, 10:3). They failed to understand the grace of God, and failed to comprehend the meaning of forgiveness. It was therefore not what they did that became a stumbling block to their growth but rather what they did not do, which alienated them from God (Matthew 23:23-24, Romans 10:4). They were irate at the fact that Jesus was receiving and forgiving “unholy” people, failing to see their own need for a Savior. We do not know how this story ended for the oldest son but we do know that the Pharisees continued to oppose Jesus and separate themselves from his followers. Despite the father’s pleading for them to “come in” they refuse and were the ones who instigated the arrest and crucifixion of Jesus Christ (Matthew 26:59). A tragic ending to a story filled with such hope, mercy, joy, and forgiveness.

The picture of the father receiving the son back into relationship is a picture of how we should respond to repentant sinners as well (1 John 4:20-21, Luke 17:3, Galatians 6:1, James 5:19-20). “All have sinned and fall short of the glory of God.” (Romans 3:23). We are included in that all and we must remember that “all our righteous acts are like filthy rags” apart from Christ (Isaiah 64:6, John 15:1-6). It is only by God’s grace that we are saved, not by works that we may boast of some goodness that we perceive to be our own (Ephesians 2:9, Romans 9:16, Psalm 51:5). That is the core message of the Parable of the Prodigal Son.

Recommended Resource: Parables of Jesus by James Montgomery Boice.

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What is the meaning of the Parable of the Prodigal Son?