Gospel of Matthew
Author: This gospel is known as the Gospel of Matthew because it was written by the apostle of the same name. The style of the book is exactly what would be expected of a man who was once a tax collector. Matthew has a keen interest in accounting (18:23-24; 25:14-15). The book is very orderly and concise. Rather than write in chronological order, Matthew arranges this Gospel through six discussions.
As a tax collector, Matthew possessed a skill that makes his writing all the more exciting for Christians. Tax collectors were expected to be able to write in a form of shorthand, which essentially meant that Matthew could record a person’s words as they spoke, word for word. This ability means that the words of Matthew are not only inspired by the Holy Spirit, but should represent an actual transcript of some of Christ’s sermons. For
example, the Sermon on the Mount, as recorded in chapters 5-7, is almost certainly a perfect recording of that great message.
Date of Writing: As an apostle, Matthew wrote this book in the early period of the church, probably around 50 AD. This was a time when most Christians were Jewish converts, so Matthew’s focus on Jewish perspective in this gospel is understandable.
Purpose of Writing:
Matthew intends to prove to the Jews that Jesus Christ is the promised Messiah. More than any other gospel, Matthew quotes the Old Testament to show how Jesus fulfilled the words of the Jewish prophets. Matthew describes in detail the lineage of Jesus from David, and uses many forms of speech that Jews would have been comfortable with. Matthew’s love and concern for his people is apparent through his meticulous approach to telling
the gospel story.
Key Verses: Matthew 5:17, “Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfill.”
Matthew 5:43-44, “Ye have heard that it hath been said, Thou shalt love thy neighbour, and hate thine enemy. But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you.”
Matthew 6:9-13, “After this manner therefore pray ye: Our Father which art in heaven, Hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come, Thy will be done in earth, as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil: For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever. Amen.”
Matthew 16:26, “For what is a man profited, if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own soul? or what shall a man give in exchange for his soul?”
Matthew 22:37-40, “Jesus said unto him, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind. This is the first and great commandment. And the second is like unto it, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. On these two commandments hang all the law and the prophets.”
Matthew 27:31, “And after that they had mocked him, they took the robe off from him, and put his own raiment on him, and led him away to crucify him.”
Matthew 28:5-6, “And the angel answered and said unto the women, Fear not ye: for I know that ye seek Jesus, which was crucified. He is not here: for he is risen, as he said. Come, see the place where the Lord lay.”
Matthew 28:19-20, “Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you always, even unto the end of the world. Amen!"
Brief Summary: Matthew discusses the lineage, birth, and early life of Christ in the first two chapters. From there, the book discusses the ministry of Jesus. The descriptions of Christ’s teachings are arranged around “discourses”, such as the Sermon on the Mount in chapters 5 through 7. Chapter 10 involves the mission and purpose of the disciples; chapter 13 is a collection of parables; chapter 18 discusses the church;
chapter 23 begins a discourse about hypocrisy and the future. Chapters 21 through 27 discuss the arrest, torture, and execution of Jesus. The final chapter describes the resurrection and the Great Commission.
Practical Application: The Gospel of Matthew is an excellent introduction to the core teachings of Christianity. The logical outline style makes it easy to locate discussion of various topics. Matthew is especially useful for understanding how the life of Christ was the fulfillment of the Old Testament prophecies.
Interestingly, Matthew is the 40th book of the Bible. In scripture, 40 is the number of testing. The flood lasted 40 days and 40 nights. The freed Israelites wandered 40 years in the desert under Moses. Jesus was tempted by Satan for 40 days in the wilderness. The book of Matthew is written for the Jewish people, God’s own chosen nation. Will they recognize the fulfillment of prophecy and believe in Christ? This
gospel, written for the people who should have recognized the Son of God first, becomes a test of their faith.
Recommended Resources: Matthew, New American Commentary by Craig Blomberg.
MacArthur Matthew Commentary Set by John MacArthur.
Matthew, Holman New Testament Commentary by Stuart Weber.
Gospel of Mark
Gospel of Luke
Gospel of John
Book of Acts
Book of Romans
Gospel of Matthew